Mankind has always had an interest in the afterlife and ghosts. Myth and folklore have been the primary literary source for documenting paranormal activity for centuries. In those tales we hear wild tales of the dead returning to haunt the living or of house spirits that can be beneficial or mischievous. These come from old tales told and re-told through the centuries before they were written down. It seems mankind’s fascination with the realm of the spirits dates bake even before recorded history.
During the 1800’s the telling of ghosts stories and making contact with the dead gained a new life. Interest in making contact with the dearly departed skyrocketed and became a part of the mainstream culture. Many charlatans and authentic mediums rose up to offer the opportunity for the living to communicate with the dead. The Spiritualism movement developed new techniques such as the séance, trance mediumship, table tipping, Ouija boards, and photographing ectoplasm and spirits. Though the remaining evidence is certainly provocative, it is not definitive.
As we enter the modern era, interest in contact with the spirit world remains just as pervasive. Modern investigators still use psychics, trance mediumship and séances, all with the intention of collecting anecdotal evidence of contact. They are also equipped with a plethora of scientific instruments including K2 meters, laser thermometers, audio recorders and cameras that can record images from infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths. All of this is in hopes that the subjective evidence corroborates with the scientific evidence to validate that an actual paranormal experience took place.
Just like the ancient people, we still like to tell ghost stories. Movies and television programs have excelled at stretching personal accounts of paranormal events in order to make a scary story. Unfortunately, these story tellers present their fictional narratives so well that many people believe that this is how actual paranormal activity is experienced. A majority of people have gained a distorted image of what spiritual contact is like. When a person as an actual paranormal encounter they are often surprised at how calm and enlightening the experience was and that it was completely unlike anything depicted in the movies.
A majority of paranormal encounters are not actually hauntings or poltergeist activity. The encounter happens when contact is made with higher level beings that have much to share with the world. People like Edgar Casey, JZ Knight, Chico Xavier, and Sheila Gillette have become famous because of their connection with spirit. Their methodology is often that of trance mediumship where they enter into a deep meditative state and a spirit comes to speak through their body. This is actually an ancient practice that is still viable in many places in the world including Africa, the Caribbean, Bali, and Thailand.
Overall, the experience of spiritual contact is a positive one. That is, if you allow yourself to see beyond the hype and fear that is projected by the entertainment media. While science continues to attempt to validate what the ancients have always known, you can take personal steps to push aside the veil and experience a reality that you are already a part of. Remember, you are a spirit having a human experience.
The term “metaphysics” has been bandied about for several centuries, and most of the time, none of us know what it really means. Simply put, metaphysics is the philosophy of attempting to understand reality within and beyond the physical world. Metaphysics as a word has been used and misused throughout the ages. Along the way, this philosophy has garnered a sullied reputation and a great deal of mistrust.
Metaphysics is a multifaceted discipline that seeks to understand the nature of the multi-universe. Whereas modern empirical science seeks to know how things work, metaphysics seeks to know why things work. In out attempt to understand metaphysics we will look at two of its major aspects: ontology and cosmology.
Ontology is the study how things are ordered, especially on the spiritual level. Think of human beings, recently departed spirits, ascended masters and deities as parts of a greater hierarchy. It is the nature of this hierarchy in which metaphysics attempts to understand. Since ontology is largely based on faith, it has seen little development through the ages. The majority of the change has come as ontological concepts overlay different spiritual traditions. All that really changes are the names of the beings and natural order.
Cosmology is the study of the nature of our world and the Universe in its many aspects. Within cosmology we discover disciplines that include astrology, sacred geometry, and alchemy. It can be understood that cosmology evolves as the understanding of the world increases. What was once the mystical tradition of astrology is now the empirical science of astronomy. Likewise, the techniques and formulations used by alchemists in their mystical quests became the initial practices of the science of chemistry.
Though metaphysics is not a science, it has made major contributions to our modern understanding and beliefs. Metaphysics is more than just understanding the nature of multiple levels of reality. The overall purpose of this understanding is to have the ability to mold the world and shape it into something better. This is where the role of the mystics comes into play.
There have been—and will continue to be—many attempts to bridge the gap between hard empirical science and the anecdotal understanding of metaphysics. Throughout history, many luminaries have left their mark on the advancement of mankind in one form or another. We must remember that Newton was more of an alchemist than a physicist, and it was the mathematical genius of the Greek mystic Pythagoras that opened the door to trigonometry and calculus centuries later.
There are six distinctive categories of metaphysics: Alternative Realities, Ancient Wisdom, Consciousness, Mystics, Paranormal, and Science of Life:
• Alternative Realities: explores the make-up of the multi-verse. We ask the question, “Are their different layers to reality than just the one we experience? If so, what are they and how do they affect us?”
• Ancient Wisdom: looks into how ancient cultures from the Celts to the Mayans saw their world. By understanding our past, we can better shape out future.
• Emerging Consciousness: our foray into understanding the Noosphere, or the realm of human intellect in the world. We see how ancient shamanic cultures used the mind in order to understand the evolution of consciousness for all of mankind.
• Mystics and Mysteries: we meet some of the world’s greatest luminaries and examine their findings. These great minds have explored many mysteries ranging from the spiritual to the technological.
• Spiritual contact: it's one of the greatest mysteries that has eluded mankind since the dawn of time. We explore this subject through the lenses of the paranormal by exploring everything from poltergeist activity to life after death.
• Science of Life: here, we use the strengths of ontology and cosmology to unravel the nature of life in the realms of the physical world and beyond.
Even though the word Metaphysics may conjure strange images in our imagination, in reality, it is a viable philosophy used to gain a subjective understanding of what we call reality. Take the time to explore the categories for yourself. What you may find is a deeper understanding into the multifaceted nature of reality of which you are such an integral part.
Sociopaths don't have normal affection with other people. They don't feel attached to others. They don't feel love. And that is why they don't have a conscience. If you harmed someone, even someone you didn't know, you would feel guilt and remorse. Why? Because you have a natural affinity for other human beings. You know how it feels to suffer, to fear, to feel anguish. You care about others.
If you hurt someone you love, the guilt and remorse would be even worse because of your affection for him or her. Take that attachment and affection away and you take away remorse, guilt, and any kind of normal feelings of fairness. That's a sociopath
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‘Time: it rules our lives, and we all wish we had more of it. Businesses make money out of it, and scientists can measure it with astonishing accuracy. Earlier this year, American researchers unveiled an atomic clock accurate to better than one second since the Big Bang 14 billion years ago.
But what, exactly, is time? Despite its familiarity, its ineffability has defied even the greatest thinkers. Over 1,600 years ago the philosopher Augustine of Hippo admitted defeat with words that still resonate: “If no-one asks me, I know what it is. If I wish to explain it to him who asks, I do not know.”’
NOTE FROM STEVEN LANIER: The below science has already been improved upon. The below sources do not note the discovery of the Amplituhedron. (Positive Grassmannian) which takes all of this research and puts it into the realm of science. This research also does not include quasicrystals, and their overall importance in the development of core atomic structure.
What the study below and the over 500 documented research resources/bibliography prove is that space and time is the emanation of a single geometric form. A geometric form created out of pure consciousness. The underpinning shape and amplitudes (geometry) is the 'jewel' that is projecting the entire universe. This entire study is referenced in detail in David Wilcock: Penrose Solves The Universe With Geometry.
I. Quantum computation and consciousness Proposals for quantum computation rely on superposed states implementing multiple computations simultaneously, in parallel, according to quantum linear superposition (e.g., Benioff, 1982; Feynman, 1986; Deutsch, 1985, Deutsch and Josza, 1992). In principle, quantum computation is capable of specific applications beyond the reach of classical computing (e.g., Shor, 1994). A number of technological systems aimed at realizing these proposals have been suggested and are being evaluated as possible substrates for quantum computers (e.g. trapped ions, electron spins, quantum dots, nuclear spins, etc., see Table 1; Bennett, 1995; and Barenco, 1995). The main obstacle to realization of quantum computation is the problem of interfacing to the system (input, output) while also protecting the quantum state from environmental decoherence. If this problem can be overcome, then present day classical computers may evolve to quantum computers.
The workings of the human mind have been historically described as metaphors of contemporary information technology. In ancient Greece memory was like a "seal ring in wax" and in the 19th century the mind was seen as a telegraph switching circuit. In this century the classical computer has been the dominant metaphor for the brain's activities. If quantum computation becomes a technological reality, consciousness may inevitably be seen as some form of quantum computation. Indeed enigmatic features of consciousness have already led to proposals for quantum computation in the brain.
Conventional explanations portray consciousness as an emergent property of classical computer-like activities in the brain's neural networks (e.g. functionalism, reductionism, physicalism, materialism, computationalism-Churchland, 1986; Dennett, 1991; Churchland and Sejnowski, 1992). The current leading candidate for a computer-like "neural correlate" of consciousness involves neuronal circuits oscillating synchronously in thalamus and cerebral cortex. Higher frequency oscillations (collectively known as "coherent 40 Hz") are suggested to mediate temporal binding of conscious experience (e.g. Singer et al 1990; Crick and Koch, 1990; Joliot et al, 1994; Gray, 1998). The proposals vary, for example as to whether coherence originates in thalamus or resonates in cortical networks, but "thalamo-cortical 40 Hz" stands as a prevalent view of the neural-level substrate for consciousness.
But how do neural firings lead to thoughts and feelings? Conventional ("functionalist") approaches fall short on the mind's enigmatic features. These include: 1) the nature of subjective experience, or qualia, our "inner life" (e.g. Nagel, 1974; Chalmers, 1996) 2) "binding" of spatially distributed brain activities into unitary objects in vision and a coherent sense of "self," 3) transition from pre-conscious processing to consciousness, 4) non-computability (Penrose, 1989; 1994; 1997), and 5) free will.
Functionalist approaches generally assume that conscious experience appears as a novel property at a critical level of computational complexity. On the surface this would seem to deal with issues 1 and 3, however a conscious threshold has neither been identified nor predicted, and there are no apparent differences in electrophysiological activities between non-conscious and conscious activity. Regarding the nature of experience (why we are not unfeeling "zombies") functionalism offers no testable predictions. Problem 2) of 'binding' in vision and self is often attributed by functionalists to temporal correlation (e.g. coherent 40 Hz), but it is unclear why temporal correlationper se should bind experience without an explanation of experience. As functionalism is based on deterministic computation, it is also unable to account for Penrose's proposed noncomputability (4), or free will (5). Something may be missing.
To address these issues, various proposals have been suggested in which macroscopic quantum phenomena are connected to the brain's known neural activity. For the problem of unitary binding, Marshall (1989) suggested that coherent quantum states known as Bose-Einstein condensation occurred among neural proteins (c.f. Penrose, 1987; Bohm and Hiley, 1993; Jibu and Yasue, 1995). Pre-conscious to conscious transitions were identified by Stapp (1992) with collapse of a quantum wave function in pre-synaptic axon terminals (c.f. Beck and Eccles, 1992). In another proposal, protein assemblies called microtubules within the brain's neurons are viewed as self-organizing quantum computers ("orchestrated objective reduction - Orch OR" e.g. Penrose and Hameroff, 1995; Hameroff and Penrose 1996a; 1996b; c.f. Hameroff 1997; 1998a; 1998b; 1998c; 1998d).
At first glance the possibility of macroscopic quantum states in biological systems seems unlikely, appearing to require either extreme cold (to avoid thermal noise) or laser-like energetic pumping to achieve coherent states. And as in technological proposals, perfect isolation of the quantum state from the environment (and/or quantum error correction codes) would be required while the system must also somehow communicate with the external world. Living cells including the brain's neurons seem unsuitably warm and wet for delicate quantum states which would seem susceptible to thermal noise and environmental decoherence. However specific conditions supporting quantum states in microtubules may have evolved (see Section III).
In addition to its biological setting, the Orch OR proposal differs significantly in another regard from technologically envisioned quantum computers. The latter would arrive at output states through reduction ("collapse") of quantum superposition to classical states by environmental decoherence the quantum state would be interrupted by the external world. The outcome states in technological quantum computers would therefore reflect deterministic processing influenced at reduction by some probabilistic randomness.
On the other hand Roger Penrose (1989; 1994; 1996) has proposed that isolated quantum systems which avoid environmental decoherence will eventually reduce nonetheless due to an objective threshold ("objective reduction" - OR) related to an intrinsic feature of fundamental spacetime geometry (see below). Unlike the situation following environmental decoherence, outcome states which reduce due to Penrose's objective reduction are selected by a non-computable influence on the deterministic, pre-reduction quantum computation. Noncomputability implies a non-algorithmic process which is neither deterministic nor random, a property which Penrose (e.g. 1997) also attributes to conscious thought and understanding. This clue suggests that quantum computation with objective reduction may be somehow involved in consciousness.
The objective factor in OR is an intrinsic feature of spacetime itself (quantum gravity). Penrose begins from general relativity with the notion that mass is equivalent to spacetime curvature. He concludes that quantum superpositionactual separation (displacement) of mass from itselfis equivalent to simultaneous spacetime curvatures in opposite directions, causing "bubbles", or separations in fundamental reality (Figure 1).
Figure 1a. Schematized protein (tubulin) capable of switching between two conformational states governed by London force interactions in a hydrophobic pocket. (Tubulin may actually have multiple smaller collectively governing hydrophobic pockets and more than two possible states. For simplicity a one pocket, two state protein is illustrated). Top: Protein switching between 2 conformational states coupled to localization of paired electrons (induced dipoles) within a hydrophobic pocket (see Section II). Bottom: quantum superposition (simultaneous existence in two distinct states) of the electron pair and protein conformation.1bFour dimensional spacetime may be schematically represented by one dimension of space and one dimension of time: a two dimensional "spacetime sheet." Mass is curvature in spacetime, and the two spacetime curvatures in the top of Figure 1b represent mass (e.g. a tubulin protein) in two different locations or conformations respectively. Mass in quantum superposition (mass separated from itself) is simultaneous spacetime curvature in opposite directions, a separation, or bubble in spacetime. At a critical degree of separation, the system becomes unstable and must select either one state or the other (from Penrose, 1994 p. 338).
Penrose views the bubbles as unstable, with a critical objective degree of separation resulting in instantaneous reduction to classical, unseparated states. Objective reductions are thus events which reconfigure the fine scale of spacetime geometry. As described in Section V, modern panpsychists attribute proto-conscious experience to a fundamental property of physical reality. If so, consciousness might involve self-organizing OR events rippling through an experiential medium.
Could OR events be occurring in the brain? If so, they would be expected to coincide with known neurophysiological processes with recognized time scales. The critical degree of spacetime separation causing Penrose's objective reduction is related to quantum gravity by the uncertainty principle:
E = hbar/T
where E is the gravitational selfenergy of the superposed mass (displaced from itself by e.g. the diameter of its atomic nuclei), is Planck's constant over 2, and T is the coherence time until OR selfcollapse. The size of an isolated superposed system is thus inversely related to the length of time until selfcollapse. Large superposed systems (e.g. Schrödinger's mythical 1 kg cat) would selfcollapse (OR) in only 1037 sec; an isolated superposed atom would OR only after 106 years! If OR events occur in the brain coupled to known neurophysiology, then we can estimate that T for conscious OR events may be in a range from 10 to 500 milliseconds (msec). This range covers neurophysiological activities such as 25 msec "coherent 40 Hz," 100 msec EEG rhythms, and Libet's (1979) 500 msec sensory perceptions). OR events coupled to roughly 100 msec activities would require a few nanograms of superposed mass.
Biological materials best suited for quantum computation and objective reduciton are proteins, particularly assemblies of proteins called microtubules.
II. Proteins and qubitsProteins are versatile macromolecules which perform a variety of functions by changing their conformational shape. Such functions include muscle movement, membrane firing via openings and closings of protein ion channels, molecular binding, enzyme catalysis, metabolism, movement and phase of cytoplasm. Life is organized by changes in protein shape.
Individual proteins are synthesized as linear chains of hundreds of amino acids which "fold" into 3 dimensional conformation. The precise manner of folding for each protein depends on attractive and repellent forces among its various amino acid side groups, and a current view is that many possible intermediate conformations precede the final one (Baldwin, 1994). Although complete linear sequences of amino acid chains are known for many proteins, predicting their final 3-dimensional folded shape using computer simulation has proven difficult if not impossible. This conundrum is known as the "protein folding problem" and so far appears to be "NP complete": the answer can be calculated in theory, but the space and time required of any classical computer is prohibitive. Perhaps protein folding is a quantum computation? (Crowell, 1996).
The main driving force in protein folding occurs as uncharged non-polar groups of particular amino acids join together and avoid water. Repelled by solvent water, "hydrophobic" non-polar groups attract each other (by van der Waals forcessee below) and bury themselves within the protein interior. As a result intra-protein hydrophobic pockets occur, composed of side groups of non-polar (but polarizable) amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine. Volumes of the pockets (~400 cubic angstroms, or 0.4 cubic nanometers) are roughly 1/30 to 1/250 the total volume of a single protein, and their physical solvent characteristics most closely resemble olive oil.
Though small, hydrophobic pockets may be critical to protein function. For example anesthetic gas molecules which reversibly ablate consciousness exert their effects in hydrophobic pockets of neural proteins (e.g., Franks and Lieb, 1982; 1985). Anesthetics bind in hydrophobic pockets by weak, physical interactions called London dispersion forces, a type of van der Waals force. Why are these weak, localized interactions so important to protein function and consciousness?
Proteins in a living state are dynamical, and only marginally stable. A protein of 100 amino acids is stable against denaturation by only ~40 kiloJoules per mole (kJ mol-1) whereas thousands of kJ mol-1 are available in a protein from side group interactions including van der Waals forces. Consequently protein conformation is a "delicate balance among powerful countervailing forces" (Voet and Voet, 1995).
Transitions in proteins occur at many time and size scales. For example small amino acid side chains move in the picosecond to femtosecond time scale (10-12 to 10-15 sec), and conformational transitions in which proteins move globally and upon which protein function generally depends occur in the nanosecond (10-9 sec) to 10 picosecond (10-11 sec) time scale (Karplus and McCammon, 1983). These global changes (e.g. as schematically represented in Figure 1a) appear to involve collective actions of various intra-protein activities (e.g. hydrogen bond rearrangements, dipole oscillations, van der Waals forces).
The types of forces operating among amino acid side groups within a protein include charged interactions such as ionic forces and hydrogen bonds, as well as interactions between dipolesseparated charges in electrically neutral groups. Dipole-dipole interactions are known as van der Waals forces and include three types:
1) Permanent dipole - permanent dipoleInduced dipole - induced dipole interactions are the weakest but most purely non-polar forces. They are known as London dispersion forces, and although quite delicate (40 times weaker than hydrogen bonds) are numerous and influential. The London force attraction between any two atoms is usually less than a few kiloJoules, however thousands occur in each protein. As other forces cancel out, London forces in hydrophobic pockets can govern protein conformational states.London forces ensue from the fact that atoms and molecules which are electrically neutral and spherically symmetrical nevertheless have instantaneous electric dipoles due to instantaneous asymmetry in their electron distribution. The electric field from each fluctuating dipole couples to others in electron clouds of adjacent non-polar amino acid side groups. Due to inherent uncertainty in electron localization, London forces which govern protein conformation are quantum effects which apparently couple to "zero point fluctuations" of the quantum vacuum (London, 1937; Milloni, 1994).
2) Permanent dipole - induced dipole
3) Induced dipole - induced dipole
Quantum level dipole oscillations within hydrophobic pockets were proposed by Frohlich (1968) to regulate protein conformation, and Conrad (1994) suggested proteins utilize quantum superposition of various possible conformations before one is selected. Roitberg et al (1995) showed functional protein vibrations which depend on quantum effects centered in two hydrophobic phenylalanine residues, and Tejada et al (1996) have evidence to suggest quantum coherent states exist in the protein ferritin. Could proteins be utilizing quantum superposition ("qubits") in determining their conformational states (bits)?
The possible situation may be characterized as in Figure 1a using the microtubule protein tubulin as an example. Tubulins are peanut-shaped dimers with two connected monomers and they undergo several types of conformational changes (e.g. Cianci et al, 1986). For example one monomer can shift 30 degrees from the tubulin dimer's vertical axis (Melki et al, 1989; c.f. Yagi et al, 1994). At the top of Figure 1a a tubulin protein switches between two such states, governed by hydrophobic pocket electron pairs coupled by London forces. (Tubulin may actually have several hydrophobic pockets and occupy more than two states, however for simplicity we consider one pocket and two states per protein.) The two possible states in the top of Figure 1a may be viewed as representing one bit of information. If however the hydrophobic pocket electron pair is superposed (Figure 1a, bottom), then protein conformation (if isolated from external environment) is also superposed and exists in both states simultaneously ("qubit"). A properly configured and isolated array of interactive protein qubits could constitute a quantum computer.
III. MicrotubulesInteriors of living cells are functionally organized by webs of protein polymers-the cytoskeleton (Figure 2). Major components of the cytoskeleton are microtubules, self-assembling hollow crystalline cylinders whose walls are hexagonal lattices of subunit proteins known as tubulin (Figure 3). Microtubules are essential for a variety of biological functions including cell movement, cell division (mitosis) and establishment and maintenance of cell form and function. In neurons, microtubules self-assemble to extend axons and dendrites and form synaptic connections; microtubules then help maintain and regulate synaptic strengths responsible for learning and cognitive functions. (For a more complete description of the role of microtubules and other cytoskeletal structures in cognitive functions see Dayhoff et al., 1994; Hameroff and Penrose 1996a; Hameroff, 1994). While microtubules have traditionally been considered as purely structural components, recent evidence has demonstrated mechanical signaling and communication functions (Glanz, 1997; Maniotis et al., 1997a; 1997b; Vernon and Wooley, 1995). Microtubules interact with membrane structures and activities by linking proteins (e.g. fodrin, ankyrin) and "second messenger" chemical signals.
Figure 2. Schematic of neural synapse showing cytoskeletal structures within two neurons. Left: Pre-synaptic axon terminal releases neurotransmitter vesicles (spheres) into synaptic cleft. Thick rod-like structures within axon are microtubules; thinner filaments (e.g. synapsin) facilitate vesicle release. Right: Dendrite on post-synaptic neuron with two dendritic spines. Microtubules in main dendrite are interconnected by microtubule-associated proteins. Other cytoskeletal structures (fodrin, actin filaments, etc.) connect membrane receptors to microtubules. Based on Hirokawa (1991).
Figure 3. Left: Microtubule (MT) structure: a hollow tube of 25 nanometers diameter, consisting of 13 columns of tubulin dimers arranged in a skewed hexagonal lattice (Penrose, 1994). Right (top): Each tubulin molecule may switch between two (or more) conformations, coupled to London forces in a hydrophobic pocket. Right (bottom): Each tubulin can also exist in quantum superposition of both conformational states (Figure 1a, c.f. Hameroff and Penrose, 1996).
How could microtubules implement classical information processing? Theoretical models propose that microtubule subunit tubulins undergo coherent excitations, for example, in the gigaHz range by a mechanism suggested by Frhlich ("pumped phonons"-Frhlich 1968, 1970, 1975; c.f. O. Penrose and L. Onsager, 1956). Frhlich excitations of tubulin subunits within microtubules have been suggested to support computation and information processing (e.g. Hameroff and Watt, 1982; Rasmussen et al., 1990). The coherent excitations are proposed to "clock" computational transitions occurring among neighboring tubulins acting as "cells" as in molecular scale "cellular automata." Dipole coupling among neighboring tubulins in the microtubule lattice act as "transition rules" for simulated microtubule automata exhibiting information processing, transmission and learning (Figure 4 - Rasmussen et al, 1990).
Classical microtubule automata switching in the nanosecond scale offer a potentially huge increase in the brain's computational capacity. Conventional approaches focus on synaptic switching (roughly 1011 brain neurons, 103synapses/neuron, switching in the millisecond range of 103 operations per second) and predict about 1017 bit states per second for a human brain (e.g. Moravec, 1985). However as biological cells typically each contain approximately 107 tubulins (Yu and Bass, 1994), nanosecond switching in microtubule automata predicts roughly 1016 operations per second, per neuron. This capacity could account for the adaptive behaviors of single cell organisms like paramecium, for example, who elegantly swim, avoid obstacles, and find food and mates without benefit of a nervous system or synapses. As the human brain contains about 1011 neurons, nanosecond microtubule automata offer about 1027 brain operations per second.
Figure 4. Microtubule automaton simulation (from Rasmussen et al., 1990). Black and white tubulins correspond to black and white states shown in Figures 1a and 3. Eight nanosecond time steps of a segment of one microtubule are shown in "classical computing" mode in which conformational states of tubulins are determined by dipole-dipole coupling between each tubulin and its six (asymmetrical) lattice neighbors calculated by where yi and ri are intertubulin distances, e is the electron charge, and is the average protein permittivity. Conformational states form patterns which move, evolve, interact and lead to emergence of new patterns.
However even a vast increase in computational complexity won't by itself address the difficult issues related to consciousness. Quantum coherent states and quantum computation with objective reduction (Orch OR) could possibly do so.
Figure 5. Schematic of quantum computation of three tubulins which begin (left) in initial classical states, then enter isolated quantum superposition in which all possible states coexist. After reduction, one particular classical outcome state is chosen (right).
Figure 5 illustrates the general idea for quantum computation with tubulins: 3 tubulins are shown in initial states, in isolated superposition of possible states during which quantum computation occurs, and in single post-reduction outcome states. Figures 6 shows microtubule automata entering quantum computation mode (gray) and meeting objective reduction threshold (between steps 6 and 7) for self-collapse to non-computably chosen outcome states. As described in Figure 7, pre-reduction quantum computation is suggested to correlate with pre-conscious processing, and the objective reduction process itself to a conscious moment. A series of such moments can give rise to a stream of consciousness (see Section V for a more complete description).
Figure 6. Microtubule automaton sequence simulation in which classical computing (step 1) leads to emergence of quantum coherent superposition (steps 26) in certain (gray) tubulins due to pattern resonance. Step 6 (in coherence with other microtubule tubulins) meets critical threshold related to quantum gravity for selfcollapse (Orch OR). Consciousness (Orch OR) occurs in the step 6 to 7 transition. Step 7 represents the eigenstate of mass distribution of the collapse which evolves by classical computing automata to regulate neural function. Quantum coherence begins to reemerge in step 8.
Macroscopic quantum states in brain microtubules would have to somehow avoid environmental decoherence and still communicate with the environment. Nature may have solved this problem with alternating phases of isolation and communication.
Figure 7. An Orch OR event. a) Microtubule simulation in which classical computing (step 1) leads to emergence of quantum coherent superposition (and quantum computing (steps 23) in certain (gray) tubulins. Step 3 (in coherence with other microtubule tublins) meets critical threshold related to quantum gravity for selfcollapse (Orch OR). A conscious event (Orch OR) occurs in the step 3 to 4 transition. Tubulin states in step 4 are noncomputably chosen in the collapse, and evolve by classical computing to regulate neural function. b) Schematic graph of proposed quantum coherence (number of tubulins) emerging versus time in microtubules. Area under curve connects superposed mass energy E with collapse time T in accordance with E=/T. E may be expressed as Nt, the number of tubulins whose mass separation (and separation of underlying space time) for time T will selfcollapse. For T = 25 msec (e.g. 40 Hz oscillations), Nt = 2 x 1010tubulins.
Microtubules and other cytoskeletal components are embedded in cytoplasm which exists in alternating phases of 1) "sol" (solution, liquid), and 2) "gel" (gelatinous, solid). Among the most primitive of biological activities, "solgel transformations" within neurons and other living cells are caused by assembly and disassembly of cytoskeletal actin (e.g. regulated by calcium ions through the protein calmodulin, in turn regulated by microtubules). Solgel transformations are essential in basic cellular activities such as ("amoeboid") movement, growth and synaptic formation, and neurotransmitter vesicle release (Miyamoto et al., 1995; Muallem et al., 1995). Transitions can occur rapidly (e.g. 40 solgel cycles per second), and some actin gels can be quite solid, and withstand deformation without transmitted response (Wacchstock et al., 1994). Cyclical encasement of microtubules by actin gels may thus be an ideal quantum isolation mechanism (Figure 8). , A biphasic cycle of microtubule computing is thus suggested: 1) a "sol" liquid, communicative phase of classical computation, and 2) a "gel" solid state, isolated quantum computing phase.
Figure 8. Schematic sequence of phases of actin gelation/quantum isolation (13) alternating with phases of solution/environmental communication (4) surrounding microtubules. Cycles may occur rapidly, e.g., 25 msec intervals (40Hz).
Key quantum events may also be shielded either in hollow microtubule cores or intra-protein hydrophobic pockets (where anesthetic gases are known to act). Feasibility of quantum coherence in the internal cell environment is supported by the observation that quantum spins from biochemical radical pairs which become separated retain their correlation in cytoplasm (Walleczek, 1995).
But if isolated cytoplasmic quantum states do occur within neuronal cells, could they traverse membranes and synapses to spread macroscopically throughout the brain? One possibility involves quantum tunneling through gap junctions, primitive electrotonic windows between neurons and glia (Figure 9). Cells interconnected by gap junctions form networks which fire synchronously, "behaving like one giant neuron" (Kandel et al, 1991), and possibly accounting for synchronized neural activity such as coherent 40 Hz (Jibu, 1990). Unlike chemical synapses which separate neural processes by 3050 nanometers, gap junction separations are 3.5 nanometers, within range for quantum tunneling. Widespread but unevenly distributed, high levels of gap junctions appear in thalamus and cortex (Micevych and Abelson, 1991). Thalamocortical networks of gap junctionconnected neurons with sol-gel phases coupled to synchronized 40 Hz activity could transiently isolate quantum states across large brain volumes.
Full rationale and details of the Orch OR model are given in Penrose and Hameroff (1995) and Hameroff and Penrose (1996a; 1996b). Key points are listed here:
Figure 9. Schematic of proposed quantum coherence in microtubules in three dendrites interconnected by tunneling through gap junctions. Within each neuronal dendrite, microtubuleassociatedprotein (MAP) attachments breach isolation and prevent quantum coherence; MAP attachment sites thus act as "nodes" which tune and orchestrate quantum oscillations and set possibilities and probabilities for collapse outcomes (orchestrated objective reduction: Orch OR). Gap junctions may enable quantum tunneling among dendrites in macroscopic quantum states.
Problem (1) subjective experience is the most difficult. How does the brain produce 'qualia', raw feelings and sensations? There have always been two types of answers. Socrates argued that consciousness was created by the cerebrum, whereas Thales, Plotinus and other "panpsychists" saw conscious experience as a fundamental feature of reality.
Modern functionalists/computationalists generally follow Socrates: consciousness emerges from complexity in the brain's neural networks. However others find this view alone unable to accommodate subjective experience, and are driven to embrace some form of panpsychism, or pan-experientialism.
Figure 10. A spin network. Introduced by Roger Penrose (1971) as a quantum mechanical description of the geometry of space, spin networks describe a spectrum of discrete Planck scale volumes and configurations (with permission from Smolin, 1997; Rovelli and Smolin, 1995a; 1995b). Average length of each edge is the Planck length (1033 cm). Numbers indicate quantum mechanical spin along each edge. Each quantum state of spacetime is a particular spin network (Smolin, 1997).
Following after ancient panpsychists, Spinoza (1677) assigned rudimentary consciousness to all particles and objects, and Leibniz (e.g. 1766) saw the universe as an infinite number of fundamental units ("monads"), each having a primitive psychological being. Whitehead (e.g. 1929) was a process philosopher who saw the universe as being comprised fundamentally of events. He described dynamic monads with spontaneity and creativity, interpreting them as mind-like entities of limited duration ("occasions of experience"). Each occasion, according to Whitehead, bears a quality akin to "feeling" by virtue of occurring in a "wider field of proto-conscious experience." Could this "wider field" be the universe itself? Could proto-conscious experience exist in empty space?
What is empty space? Democritus described empty space as a true void whereas Aristotle saw a background "plenum" filled with substance. Maxwell's 19th-century "luminiferous ether" sided with Aristotle but attempts to detect the ether failed and Einstein's special relativity agreed with Democritus: empty space was an absolute void. However Einstein's general relativity with its curved space and distorted geometry reverted to a richly-endowed plenumthe spacetime metric.
Figure 11. Schematic quantum computation in spacetime curvature for three mass distributions (e.g. tubulin conformations in Figure 5) which begin (left) in initial classical states, then enter isolated quantum superposition in which all possible states coexist. After reduction, one particular classical outcome state is chosen (right).
At very small scales spacetime is not smooth, but quantized. Granularity occurs at the incredibly small "Planck scale" (10-33 centimeters , 10-43 seconds) which Penrose (1971) portrays as a dynamical spider-web of quantum spin networks (Figure 10; Rovelli and Smolin, 1995a; 1995b; Smolin, 1997). Spin networks define spectra of discrete Planck scale volumes and configurations which dynamically evolve and define spacetime geometry. Planck-scale spin networks could provide Whitehead's basic field of proto-conscious experience. Shimony (1993) has suggested Whitehead occasions are quantum state reductions. As described in Section I, Penrose objective (quantum state) reductions are bubble-like separations and collapses in fundamental spacetime geometry extending downward to the level of spin networks. Figure 11 illustrates quantum superposition and objective reduction of spacetime geometry. Orch OR events could be Whitehead occasions of experience
In a panpsychist view consistent with modern physics, Planck scale spin networks encode proto-conscious ("funda-mental"") experience (qualia) as well as Platonic values. Particular configurations of quantum spin geometry convey particular varieties of proto-conscious experience, meaning and aesthetics. The proposed Orch OR events occur in the brain, extending downward to processes in an experiential Planck scale medium. The basic idea is that consciousness involves brain activities coupled to self-organizing ripples in fundamental reality.
How can near-infinitesimal proto-conscious information link to macroscopic biology? As described in Section VI, the Orch OR process may be an emergent phenomenon in quantum geometry mediated through London forces in hydrophobic pockets of tubulin and other proteins.
The second difficult issue related to consciousness is (2) binding and it is potentially resolved by the unitary nature of quantum states (e.g. Penrose, 1987). Marshall (1989) suggested that binding was a feature of Bose-Einstein condensates among certain of the brain's neural proteins. In the Orch OR model, an instantaneous event binds superposed information whose net mass/spacetime displacement reaches threshold at a particular moment: different modes and time scales of information are bound into a unitary "now" event.
Problem (3) is the transition from pre-conscious processing to consciousness itself. In Orch OR pre-conscious processing is equivalent to the quantum superposition phase of quantum computation. Potential possibilities interact and then abruptly self-collapse, a slight quake in spacetime geometry. As quantum state reductions are irreversible, cascades of Orch OR events present a forward flow of subjective time and "stream of consciousness."
Quantum computation with objective reduction is potentially applicable to cognitive activities. Functions like face recognition and volitional choice may require a series of conscious events arriving at intermediate solutions. For the purpose of illustration consider single Orch OR events in these two types of cognitive activities.
Imagine you briefly see a familiar woman's face. Is she Amy, Betty, or Carol? Possibilities may superpose in a quantum computation. For example during 25 milliseconds of pre-conscious processing, quantum computation occurs with information (Amy, Betty, Carol) in the form of "qubits"superposed states of microtubule tubulin subunits within groups of neurons. As threshold for objective reduction is reached, an instantaneous conscious event occurs. The superposed tubulin qubits reduce to definite states, becoming bits. Now, you recognize that she is Carol! (an immense number of possibilities could be superposed in a human brain's 1019 tubulins).
Figure 12. An Orch OR event (continued from Figure 4). a) (left) Three tubulins in quantum superposition prior to 25 msec Orch OR After reduction (right), particular classical states are selected. b) Fundamental spacetime geometry view. Prior to Orch OR (left), spacetime corresponding with three superposed tubulins is separated as Planck scale bubbles: curvatures in opposite directions. The Planckscale spacetime separations S are very tiny in ordinary terms, but relatively large mass movements (e.g., hundreds of tubulin conformations, each moving from 106 to 0.2 nm) indeed have precisely such very tiny effects on the spacetime curvature. A critical degree of separation causes Orch OR and an abrupt selection of single curvatures (and a particular geometry of experience). c) Cognitive facial recognition. A familiar face induces superposition (left) of three possible solutions (Amy, Betty, Carol) which "collapse" to the correct answer Carol (right). d) Cognitive volition. Three possible dinner selections (shrimp, sushi, pasta) are considered in superposition (left), and collapse via Orch OR to choice of sushi (right).
In a volitional act possible choices may be superposed. Suppose for example you are selecting dinner from a menu. During pre-conscious processing, shrimp, sushi and pasta are superposed in a quantum computation. As threshold for objective reduction is reached, the quantum state reduces to a single classical state. A choice is made. You'll have sushi!
How does the choice actually occur? Can the selection criteria be described by a deterministic algorithm? These questions relate to problems (4) non-computability and (5) free will.
The problem in understanding free will is that our actions seem neither totally deterministic nor random (probabilistic). What else is there in nature? As previously described, in OR (and Orch OR) the reduction outcomes are neither deterministic nor probabilistic, but "non-computable." The microtubule quantum superposition evolves linearly (analogous to a quantum computer) but is influenced at the instant of collapse by hidden non-local variables (? quantum-mathematical logic inherent in fundamental spacetime geometry). The possible outcomes are limited, or probabilities set ("orchestrated"), by neurobiological feedback (in particular microtubule associated proteins-MAPs, Figure 9). The precise outcomeour free will actionsare chosen by effects of the hidden logic on the quantum system poised at the edge of objective reduction.
Consider a sailboat analogy for free will. A sailor sets the sail in a certain way; the direction the boat sails is determined by the action of the wind on the sail. Let's pretend the sailor is a non-conscious robot zombie run by a quantum computer which is trained and programmed to sail. Setting and adjusting of the sail, sensing the wind and position and so forth are algorithmic and deterministic, and may be analogous to the pre-conscious, quantum computing phase of Orch OR. The direction and intensity of the wind (seemingly capricious, or unpredictable) may be analogous to Planck scale hidden non-local variables (e.g. "Platonic" quantum-mathematical logic inherent in space-time geometry). The choice, or outcome (the direction the boat sails, the point on shore it lands) depends on the deterministic sail settings acted on repeatedly by the apparently unpredictable wind. Our "free will" actions could be the net result of deterministic processes acted on by hidden quantum logic at each Orch OR event. This can explain why we generally do things in an orderly, deterministic fashion, but occasionally our actions or thoughts are surprising, even to ourselves.
Biological quantum computation intrinsic to brain function such as the proposed Orch OR model can in principle address difficult issues related to consciousness.
VI. Are microtubules quantum computers?The idea of biological quantum computation connected to fundamental geometry seems far-fetched. The Planck length is 24 orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of an atom. Approximately 1078 discrete Planck scale volumes correspond to the space occupied by one protein, and 10105 such volumes to a brain. The energy of one proposed Orch OR (e.g. 25 msec) is only 10-28 joules, or 10-10 electron volts (eV) whereas the energy of thermal noise (kT) is much larger at 10-4 eV. How could near-infinitesimally small, weak and fast processes have macroscopic effects in biological systems? Orch OR may be viewed as a nonlinear phenomenon in which particular configurations of 1088 Planck scale volumes emerge 40 times per second to influence protein conformation through delicately balanced London forces. Conditions supporting quantum states and primitive consciousness would favor survival and have naturally evolved (Hameroff, 1998).
In an accompanying paper in this volume, Tuszynski and Brown (1998) review the physics of microtubules and critique the Orch OR proposal. They raise several issues which are discussed in Appendix I.
Here similarities are sought between microtubules and technological proposals for quantum computation. A "potentially realizable" quantum computer has been described by Lloyd (1993) as ". . . arrays of weakly coupled quantum systems. Computation is effected by . . . . a sequence of electromagnetic pulses that induce transitions between locally defined quantum states. . . in a crystal lattice."
In the Orch OR model, the microtubule assembly corresponds to Lloyd's crystal lattice. Rather than trapped ions or nuclear spins, quantum superposition is proposed to occur at the level of conformational states of tubulins, and the role of pulsed transitions played by coherent Frhlich excitations.
The Orch OR proposal may be compared to technological schemes in terms of a "Figure of Merit M" (Table 1; Barenco, 1996; DiVincenzo, 1995). M is the time Tdecohere until decoherence divided by the time telem of each elementary operation, and gives the number of operations allowable per computational unit before decoherence. With telem of 109 secs (Frhlich frequency) and Tdecohere of e.g. 100 msec (EEG alpha), the Orch OR model yields a respectable M of 108 operations per tubulin before a conscious event occurs.
TableFigure of Merit M for different proposed quantum computing technologies and microtubules. (Modified from Barenco, 1996 and from DiVincenzo, 1995).
According to the proposals put forth in the Orch OR model, microtubules seem to be well designed (perhaps ideally designed) quantum computers. If so, technological efforts can possibly mimic some of nature's design principles such as cylindrical lattice automata and alternating phases of isolation and communication. The massive parallelism and specific microtubule lattice geometry (e.g. helical patterns following the Fibonacci series) may also facilitate quantum error correction. However technology will be hard-pressed to emulate objective reduction which, it is argued, is required for consciousness. Presently envisioned technological quantum computers will implement superposition of ions, electrons, nuclei or other small entities. To achieve objective reduction in a reasonable and useful time scale, a fairly large superposed mass (i.e. nanograms) will be required. While such a task seems formidable, it is possible. Quantum computation with objective reduction may hold the only promise for conscious computers.
Regardless of whether or not the Orch OR proposal turns out to be correct (and unlike most theories of consciousness it is testable - Appendix 2), it is the type of multi-level, trans-disciplinary approach needed to address the problem of consciousness.
Acknowledgments: Thanks to Roger Penrose who doesn't necessarily endorse the newer proposals, Dave Cantrell for illustrations and Carol Ebbecke for expert assistance.
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Appendix 1. Reply to Tuszynski and Brown
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Gravitational effects should be entirely overshadowed by the remaining processes. The energy from an Orch OR event is indeed very small compared to thermal noise (kT) and would seemingly drown in an aqueous medium. Isolation/insulation mechanisms are thus required to shield microtubules from thermal noise or any type of environmental decoherence. The Orch OR model suggests that quantum coherent superposition occurs in microtubules which are immediately surrounded by an insulating charge condensation and encased (cyclically) in actin gelation (Section III). Cyclical isolation allows for alternating phases of communication (input/output) and isolated quantum computation.
In addition to isolation, microtubule subunits (tubulins) must also be sensitive to quantum influences from other superposed tubulins and non-computable influences in Planck scale geometry. In questioning the robustness of proposed quantum effects, Tuszynski and Brown ascribe the gravitational energy for a tubulin protein in Orch OR to be the attraction between two masses given by the standard Gm2/r, where G is the gravitational constant, m is the mass of tubulin, and r is the distance between the two masses which Tuszynski and Brown take to be the radius of tubulin. This would accurately describe the gravitational attraction between two adjacent tubulins (or tubulin monomers), and yields an appropriately small energy of 10-27 eV. However the relevant energy in Orch OR is the gravitational self-energy E of a superposed mass m separated from itself by distance a, given (for complete separation) by E=Gm2/a. In Hameroff and Penrose (1996) we calculated this energy for three cases: 1) partial separation of the entire protein by one tenth its radius, and 2) complete separation at the level of each proteins atomic nuclei (a=2.5 fermi lengths), and 3) complete separation at the level of each protein's nucleons (a=0.5 fermi). Of these, highest energies were for separation at the level of atomic nuclei, roughly 10-21 eV per tubulin (although separation at the level of, say, atoms or amino acids may yield higher energy). As roughly 2 x 1010 tubulins are involved in each proposed Orch OR event (e.g. for superpositions lasting 25 msec) the energy is on the order of roughly 10-10 eV, or 10-28 joules, still extremely tiny (kT is about 10-4 eV). However the 10-28 joule energy emerges abruptly, e.g. within one Planck time of 10-43 seconds. This may be equivalent to an instantaneous jab of 1013watts (joules/sec), roughly 1 kilowatt per tubulin.
The size of the tubulin protein is probably too large to make quantum effects easily sustainable. Nanometer size proteins such as tubulin (8 nm x 4 nm x 4 nm) may be optimal scale for a quantum/macroscopic interface (Watterson 1991, Conrad 1994). Smaller biomolecules lack causal efficacy of structural protein conformational changes responsible for a host of biological functions. Larger molecules would be insufficiently sensitive to quantum effects.
Conformational effects are expected to involve distances of 10 angstroms (1 nanometer), larger than those called for in the Orch OR model. The superposition separation distance (e.g. 1 atomic nucleus, 10-6 nanometer in the case cited) is indeed much smaller than conformational changes which may approach 1 nanometer. As described in Section II proteins are relatively unstable and their conformation regulated through nonlinear "quakes" mediated through quantum-level London forces.
Physiological temperature requirements make it extremely difficult to defend the use of the quantum regime due to the persistence of thermal noise. A biological quantum state must be isolated/insulated from thermal noise, a feature nature may have evolved in cytoplasmic actin gelation and condensed charged layers (Section III). Some evidence supports biological quantum states (e.g. Tejada et al, 1996; Walleczek, 1995). According to the Frhlich mechanism, thermal energy in biological systems may condense to a coherent mode.
EI>microtubules are extremely sensitive to their environmentEe doubt that microtubules can be shielded. As described in Section III, nature may have solved the problem of both isolation and communication by alternating cytoplasmic phases of solution ("sol", liquid, sensitive to environment, classical) and gelation ("gel", solid, shielded/insulated, quantum). Thus microtubules can be both sensitive to their environment ("sol" phase) and isolated/shielded ("gel" phase).
Ewo (or possibly more) conformational states of tubulin are separated by a sizable potential barrier which again requires an external stimulus (such as GTP hydrolysis) to overcome it. Tubulin has numerous possible conformations which can interchange without GTP hydrolysis (Section II). The two state tubulin model is a simplification. The structure of tubulin has recently been clarified (Nogales et al, 1998) so molecular simulations will soon be available.
Ehe 500 msec preconscious processing time may be directly related to the action potential travel time along the axon plus the refractory lag time in synaptic transmission rather than to the quantum collapse time. In the Orch OR model the "quantum collapse time" T is chosen to match known neurophysiological time intervals related to pre-conscious processes; the gravitational self-energy E and related mass may then be calculated. For example we have used 25 msec (e.g. in coherent 40 Hz oscillations), 100 msec (e.g. EEG alpha rhythm), and 500 msec (e.g. Libet's pre-conscious threshold for low intensity sensory stimuli).
If quantum superposition correlates with pre-conscious processing, then dendritic activities (more than axonal firings) are likely to be relevant to consciousness (e.g. Pribram, 1991). Microtubules in dendrites are of mixed polarity (unlike those in axons), an arrangement conducive to cooperative computation.
Tuszynski and Brown raise valid objections; quantum states in a biological milieu appear at first glance to be unlikely. However nature may have evolved specific conditions for isolation, thermal screening and amplification. Life itself may be a macroscopic quantum state.
Appendix 2. Testable predictions of the Orch OR model
Here major assumptions (bold) and corresponding testable predictions (numbered) of the Orch OR model are listed:
Neuronal microtubules are directly necessary for consciousness
1. Synaptic sensitivity and plasticity correlate with cytoskeletal architecture/activities in both presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal cytoplasm.
2. Actions of psychoactive drugs including antidepressants involve neuronal microtubules.
3. Neuronal microtubulestabilizing/protecting drugs may prove useful in Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, and other conditions.
Microtubules communicate by cooperative dynamics of tubulin subunits
4. Laser spectroscopy (e.g. Vos et al, 1993) will demonstrate coherent gigaHz Frhlich excitations in microtubules.
5. Dynamic vibrational states in microtubule networks correlate with cellular activity.
6. Stable patterns of microtubulecytoskeletal networks (including neurofilaments) and intramicrotubule diversity of tubulin states correlate with memory and neural behavior.
7. Cortical dendrites contain largely "Alattice" microtubules (compared to "Blattice" microtubule, Alattice microtubules are preferable for information processingTuszynski et al., 1995)
Quantum coherence occurs in microtubules
8. Studies similar to the famous "Aspect experiment" in physics (which verified nonlocal quantum correlationsAspect et al., 1982) will demonstrate quantum correlations between spatially separated microtubule subunit states a) on the same microtubule, b) on different microtubules in the same neuron, c) on microtubules in different neurons connected by gap junctions.
9. Experiments with SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) such as those suggested by Leggett (1984) will detect phases of quantum coherence in microtubules.
10. Coherent photons will be detected from microtubules.
Microtubule quantum coherence requires isolation by cycles of surrounding actingelation
11. Neuronal microtubules in cortical dendrites and other brain areas are intermittently surrounded by tightly cross-linked actin gels.
12. Cycles of gelation and dissolution in neuronal cytoplasm occur concomitantly with membrane electrical activity (e.g. synchronized 40 Hz activities in dendrites).
13. The solgel cycles surrounding microtubules are regulated by calcium ions released and reabsorbed by calmodulin associated with microtubules.
Macroscopic quantum coherence occurs among MT in hundreds/thousands of distributed neurons and glia linked by gap junctions
14. Electrotonic gap junctions link synchronously firing networks of cortical neurons, and thalamocortical networks
15. Quantum tunneling occurs across gap junctions.
16. Quantum correlation occurs between microtubule subunit states in different neurons connected by gap junctions (the microtubule "Aspect experiment" in different neurons)
The amount of neural tissue involved in a conscious event is inversely proportional to the event time by E=hbar/T
17. The amount of neural mass involved in a particular cognitive task or conscious event (as measurable by nearfuture advances in brain imaging techniques) is inversely proportional to the preconscious time (e.g. visual perception, reaction times).
An isolated, unperturbed quantum system selfcollapses according to E=hbar/T
18. Isolated technological quantum superpositions will selfcollapse according to E=/T. (Preliminary discussions of such experiments involving superposition of crystals have begun between Roger Penrose and Anton Zeilinger.)
Microtubulebased cilia/centriole structures are quantum optical devices
19. Microtubulebased cilia in rods and cones directly detect visual photons and connect with retinal glial cell microtubule via gap junctions.
A critical degree of cytoskeletal assembly (coinciding with the onset of rudimentary consciousness) had significant impact on the rate of evolution.
Fossil records and comparison with presentday biology will show that organisms which emerged during the early Cambrian period with onset roughly 540 million years ago had critical degrees of microtubulecytoskeletal size, complexity and capability for quantum isolation (e.g. tight actin gels, gap junctions; see Hameroff, 1998b).
The hammer sees only the nail. If it were also a screwdriver, it would be able to see screws, too. But, it’s a hammer and therefore everything that is not a nail goes unnoticed.
The ego sees only what it desires. If it were also a fish, it would be able to swim, too. But, it’s an ego and therefore everything that is not a desire goes unnoticed.
The hammer is designed to drive nails. The ego is designed to get what it wants. There is nothing wrong with this, it’s just that there is more to life than nails and desires.
Nails comes naturally to hammers and desires come naturally to egos. Changing this is impossible.
My point is this: If I am only an ego with a hammer, then I can only nail my desires or desire my nails. However, if I am the one who is aware of my ego and hammer, then my experience of life expands infinitely in all directions and I notice everything, not just nails and desires.
Making this distinction is the beginning of authentic spiritual life. This is because spiritual life is about what is true, not just what is assumed to be true that then becomes a massive context to which everything is now subject.
The ego is an assumption of a separate self that is then overlaid onto life. If I subject my awareness to this assumption, these ego colored glasses, then I will see only what the ego sees.
If I identify with my awareness, then I am open to whatever awareness is aware of, which is a helluva lot more than nails and desires. I’m still aware of them, but am not limited to just them.
Every religious tradition in the world, from Hinduism to the New Age, is based on the assumption of a separate self. Therefore, it is an overlay projected onto life. It’s not about Life, it’s about assumptions about life. It’s the difference between food and pictures of food. If you try to live on pictures of food, you will die.
The Current of Life, the Pulse, the Music, the Passion, the Intensity, the Searing Radiance of Existence is central to Life, not provincial superstitions like ego. It’s understandable that we invent superstitions and project them onto life. It’s understandable, yes, but that doesn’t make them true.
Every religious tradition assumes a separate self that is going from here to there, from earth to heaven, from birth to death. While it is true that lifeforms are born and die, the underlying Reality in which these cycles are occurring is the Real Deal. The fish in the ocean are born and die, but the Ocean remains. Therefore, the Ocean is the True Condition of the fish, not its ideas about itself. The fish would say, “What Ocean?”
In the same way, the ego says, What God? I exist, what I say and what I think and what I want are God. In this way, false gods are overlaid onto Real God, Life God, Reality God, Actual God. Beliefs about God replace God. Now, you’re lost. You’re lost and don’t know it. You’ve got your nose so close to the map, you can’t see where you’re going.
The priests say, “You’re not doing it right.” The doctors say, “Take this prescription and come back in 2 weeks”. The therapist says, “Apply this formula so that you can heal and adapt to society.”
Ho fucking hum. Religious, medical, and therapeutic prescriptions for a false disease bore me. Not only that, they really piss me off because well meaning people believe this shit and are so buried, they can’t even see the bottom of the hole.
If you repeat a lie enough, everyone will believe it.”
“A lie doesn’t become truth because everyone believes it. A truth doesn’t become a lie because no one sees it.”
The individuated self appears spontaneously in Nature, just like stars, planets and galaxies. These are objects OF consciousness. We are aware OF them. Therefore, consciousness is prior TO them. This means that Consciousness is the Principle of Existence, not objects, not thoughts, not ideas, not beliefs, not “your truth”, not mine, not your ego, not mine.
Now, you ask, What is Consciousness? Your awareness of Awareness enables you to ask this question. Consciousness becomes an object to itself. This is called Manifest Existence, the Universe, the Word become Flesh, the Incarnation of the Divine, the Kingdom of Heaven, the Garden of Eden. Where there is awareness of Awareness, the Nature of Reality shines brightly and illuminates the map to the point where you see that you have been eating the menu for the Meal. It’s the difference between pictures of sex and sex itself. Which do you prefer?
Spiritual life is about Truth, Absolute Truth, What has always been True, not absolute beliefs, dogmatic presumptions, or facsimiles of Truth.
No separate self ever discovered the Truth. Spiritual luminaries like Jesus and Adi Da were not separate selves. They were identified with the Divine Condition. Jesus spoke like God speaks, that’s why he was crucified. He wasn’t a megalomaniac, the separate self was not inflated to grandiose proportions, there was no separate self, only a clear passage for Truth to Radiate.
That’s why he wanted us to contemplate his State and put our attention on It, so that It would duplicate his realization in us. It was never about cultic worship of him, it was about the destruction of the cultist and his or her false presumptions about separateness from Love (God), our Actual Condition. This is true repentance, the renouncement of the false self and its idols, so that Love Intimacy, Heart Communion with Life is possible. Love Communion with Infinite Life is authentic spiritual practice. It’s the difference between a Juicy Kiss and a boring book that doesn’t even have any pictures.
Spiritual life is not boring, is not dry, is not effortful. It takes no effort to be attracted to What is True, Beautiful, and Alive as all things. It’s real time love communion, not brain/mind ideas plastered onto Life. Everyone possesses this ability. It may be buried beneath the rubble, but it’s still there.
Dig it up.
Alan Watts is one of the most widely read philosophers of the 20th century. In addition to his 28 books, Alan Watts delivered hundreds of public lectures and seminars the recordings of which have been preserved in the archives of the Electronic University. Alan's eldest son Mark Watts has reviewed and cataloged these talks to prepare them for public broadcast. In 2005 Amber Star of Zencast.org created Alan Watts podcast to help disseminate these lectures to a new iPod listening generation . Today the Electronic University and Zencast.org are pleased to present the highlights of the spoken works of Alan Watts.
Alan Watts's Books
The Spirit of Zen 1936
The Legacy of Asia and Western Man 1939
The Meaning of Happiness 1940
Behold the Spirit 1947
Easter - Its Story and Meaning 1950
The Supreme Identity 1950
The Wisdom of Insecurity 1951
Myth and Ritual in Christianity 1953
The Way of Zen 1957
Nature, Man, and Woman 1958
This Is It 1960
Psychotherapy East and West 1961
The Joyous Cosmology 1962
The Two Hands of God 1963
Beyond Theology 1964
The Book On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are 1966
Does It Matter? 1970
Erotic Spirituality 1971
The Art of Contemplation 1972
In My Own Way (autobiography) 1972
Cloud-hidden, Whereabouts Unknown 1973
Tao: The Watercourse Way 1975
Alan Watts - Monographs and Pamphlets
An Outline of Zen Buddhism 1932
Seven Symbols of Life 1936
The Psychology of Acceptance 1939
The Theological Mystica of St. Dionysius 1944
The Meaning of Preisthood 1946
Zen Buddhism 1947
The Way of Liberation in Zen Buddhism 1955
Beat Zen, Square Zen, and Zen 1956
Alan Watts - Records
Om: The Sound of Hinduism 1967
Why Not Now: Dhyana, The Art of Meditation 1969
This bibliography doesn't include the numerous books of essays and lecture transcripts published after his death.
Did human extraterrestrials visit Earth -- and predict a Golden Age will culminate in the year 2012, freeing us from evil, fear and doom?
Did the founding fathers of America inherit this prophecy -- and encode it directly into the Great Seal of the United States? Why is there a pyramid with an eye inside a glowing triangle? Is Novus Ordo Seclorum quoted from an ancient prophecy text -- the greatest and most secret treasure of the Roman Empire -- predicting that humans on Earth will transmute into "light beings" and achieve Apotheosis -- where Man becomes God -- and the 'Gods' themselves return?
David Wilcock reveals the stunning scientific proof that DNA and biological life emerge directly out of the Source Field... a universal matrix of energy creating all space, time, matter, energy, biological life and consciousness -- and we are indeed about to experience the Greatest Moment of All Time. Learn about the pineal gland, Illuminati, government conspiracy, UFOs, DMT, the Mayan Calendar and more!
‘In a recent interview on Waking Times aired on The People’s Voice Network, Dr. Eben Alexander, Harvard Neurosurgeon presents compelling scientific research in the field of consciousness that examines the unfolding reality that the brain does NOT create consciousness. Misleading concepts that focus on reductive materialism have kept us in the dark about the true nature of the human soul and its integral part in our evolution as spiritual beings.
“The old paradigm of birth to death represents an outdated concept that is woefully inadequate in defining the unfolding reality of expanded awareness,” he stated in the interview with Waking Times. “Materialist science is at the end of its days as most scientists are changing their views. The old concepts are soon to be relegated to the same dust bin as ‘the earth is flat’ as we develop a more mature understanding and transcend old beliefs.”’
Who owns you? Are you anyone's slave?
If you like this video, feel free to check out the website - josietheoutlaw.com, follow Josie on Twitter at @JosietheOutlaw1 and Instagram at @josiewalesoutlaw....and share with anyone and everyone YOU feel needs to hear this message.
National Geographic Knights Templar Warriors of God
Knights Templar: Warriors of God Delve into the myths and mysteries of the legendary medieval order - the Knights Templar. The Templar have recently attracted global attention following Dan Brown's best selling novel The Da Vinci Code, where they are presented as mysterious protectors of the Holy Grail. Modern Conspiracy theorists suggest that the Knights Templar still exists in secret to this day and still protects a vast and mysterious treasure. Using historical re-enactments of battles and long secret rituals, we separate fact from fiction behind these legendary warriors.
The medieval Knights Templar were warrior-monks, mostly aristocratic men who took vows of poverty, chastity and obedience in return for assurances that they would enter heaven. Thus guaranteed salvation and eternal life, they fought in the Crusades with reckless abandon. Sanello (The Opium Wars) pedantically traces the order's rise and fall over the course of two centuries. It originated in the 12th century to provide protection to pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land, and Templars fought courageously in various Crusades. By the beginning of the 13th century, they had become victims of their own courage, suffering tremendous military losses in Palestine. But their presence in Europe grew and their reputation as bankers developed. As Sanello points out, the Templars invented the check and established the first branch banks, where pilgrims could take out loans for their travels to Jerusalem. By the early 14th century, however, the order had fallen on hard times, accused by the Inquisition of homosexuality, greed and heresy. Their Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, was burned at the stake as a heretic in 1314, and with this the order was banned. Through a focus on various legends that have since arisen-that the Templars were the precursors of Masons and keepers of the Holy Grail-Sanello shows how the order has been kept alive in name if not in reality.
For nearly two centuries, the Knights Templar was the most powerful order in the medieval world. Today, the group's legacy is played out in an array of Hollywood blockbusters and numerous works of popular literature.
‘Here’s a good exercise that will help alter your conscious awareness and put punch and clarity where slosh once existed. Don’t even use the words “hope” or “believe”. Every time you’re tempted to say, write or even think these debilitating, nebulous concepts, replace “I hope” or “I believe” with “I think” or “it appears to me” or something else realistic that clearly indicates what you really mean.
These types of inhibitors are a subtle trick of the programmed language we’ve been handed.
We don’t need full evidence to make conjectures or intuitive surmisings. Just call them what they are. Hope is one of the most misleading and disempowering terms we’ve ever been handed, as is belief. Drop them entirely. We tend to know what people seem to mean when using these terms, but they’re still just as intellectually and spiritually crippling.’
‘The cross is an archetype found in all cultures, mostly in a magical context, where it has power as the route to enlightenment, and as a symbol of the inner solar power. The cross is unique in its all-inclusive symbolism, which covers cyclic or vortex patterns, the Sun god, the Earth goddess, the life-giver, the great tree and the earth energies. The symbol of the Aztec creator god, Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent, was a cross. The Aztec weather goddess also carried a cross, and at Cozumel it was an object of worship. Native Americans marked their boundaries with a magic cross.
In many cultures a cross was placed upon an initiate’s chest as a symbol of rebirth. In around 100 BC, crosses were set up above the graves of the elect by the ancient Scandinavians, who also used them as boundary markers. The staffs of the Norse priests were crosses combined with the caduceus. In many doctrines the four branches of the cross stand for the four elements of antiquity: air, earth, fire and water. The permanence and alchemical significance of this is obvious to the enlightened.’
The term starseeds has its roots in Native American beliefs that the early inhabitants of this planet were genetic creations by visitors from other planetary systems. Many believe these people come from the Pleiades star system, although others believe the Pleiadians are just one of many star groups that have seeded this planet. The awakening and activation of these starseeds is set for a specific time and purpose, relative to the evolution of this planet, which has been likened to a grand enlightenment, a graduation into a higher awareness, for the planet and its peoples.
Fiirst, to understand the concept of starseeds awakening and activation, one needs to have a clear understanding of reincarnation and also time and space. If we consider that we are spiritual beings having a physical experience, then are any of us really from this planet Earth? From that perspective, perhaps we are all visitors here, having a human experience.
Pleiadian, Arcturian and Sirian Star People
Many souls have incarnated time and again on this planet Earth, but others have not. The universe is beyond imagination in size, with countless galaxies and planetary systems containing life. The Pleiades is just one of such star systems and the people of that star group, the Pleiadians, are believed to be advanced beyond our understanding.
Mission of The Starseeds
"We speak now of your mission. The mission of the Starseeds who from your perspective have been patient beyond patience, realising their sovereignty within Zero Point awareness.
Your mission, whilst individual, is also a collective one and you each share the same mission on Earth." -Magenta Pixie
Besides Pleiadian, there are many who believe that other star people have representatives on this planet, including Arcturian and Sirian starseeds (from the Sirius star system, not the country). They all share a common heritage in that they've had several lives on other planets, in this galaxy or many others. Whereas star people are born of two earth parents, starseeds have a third parent DNA component that is of extraterrestrial origin.
All starseeds share similar traits in that they don't feel at home here on this planet. They have a strong interest in the universe, extraterrestrial and metaphysical topics, but they have a sense of loss or of not belonging here. They question the ways of earth from an early age and are often misunderstood by their families. All share the same sense of helplessness and amnesia about their identity, origins and purpose.
What is a Starseed?
Starseeds incarnate here for different reasons. Many are here in service to humanity, in preparation for a massive change in consciousness that is due to happen shortly. They share a sense of urgency about the future.
The Pleiadian, Arcturian and Sirian starseeds have an encoded gene designed to awaken them at a specific time in life. The starseeds awakening and activation can be gradual or abrupt. When it happens they remember their purpose and they begin their mission.
Star Bred - Predictions
The book Star Bred - Predictions follows the lives of starseeds as they awaken to their origins. Reading like fiction, it is largely based on actual events, the story told through the experiences of the characters in the story.
Extraterrestrial contact features strongly in this material, so when reading Star Bred - Predictions, be prepared for a thought provoking ride. It'll certainly challenge your view on life and our universe.
Awakening The Star Seeds
‘There’s a video which brings all of these supposedly separate evils together. The video ties Israel and the USSA to the single most criminal set of actions, to the attempt to murder 95% of the global population. And this murderous association has been going on since 1968.
What is absolutely amazing is that this extremely public set of ‘groups’ has been publicly stating their intentions since 1968. Apparently the planet has failed to take notice, much less to react to their direct threat to carry out this global-death sentence.’
‘During the early years of Christianity, there were a lot of divergent beliefs surrounding the figure of Jesus, all semi-coexisting in harmony until emperor Constantine organized the first Council of Nicea; by then one ‘canonical’ story was supported by the Roman empire, while the rest were considered apocryphal & therefore heretic.
A recent translation of a 1200-year-old Coptic text, found in the ruins of the Egyptian Monastery of St. Michael, offers us a glimpse of perhaps one of the rarest beliefs shared by the ancient Coptic monks: According to the translation of Roelof Van den Broek –of Ultrecht University (Netherlands)– Jesus had the ability to change his appearance, and even become completely invisible!’
The creation of the New World Order (NWO) agenda was put in motion by the infamous character, Mayer Amschel Rothschild, the one who decided to control the entire planet by any means necessary. Of course, this meant: deception, control, financial enslavement, blackmail and murder… but also far graver things, like: wars, famine and depopulation… a genocide unlike any other before it.
If you want to better understand just how powerful and black-hearted the Rothschild family is, then you must read their complete history HERE. They are the richest clan in the world, and their empire was built on mountains of bones and sufferance.
‘A team of physicists has provided some of the clearest evidence yet that our Universe could be just one big projection.
In 1997, theoretical physicist Juan Maldacena proposed1 that an audacious model of the Universe in which gravity arises from infinitesimally thin, vibrating strings could be reinterpreted in terms of well-established physics. The mathematically intricate world of strings, which exist in nine dimensions of space plus one of time, would be merely a hologram: the real action would play out in a simpler, flatter cosmos where there is no gravity.’
‘Biocentrism teaches that life and consciousness are fundamental to the universe. It is consciousness that creates the material universe, not the other way around.
Lanza points to the structure of the universe itself, and that the laws, forces, and constants of the universe appear to be fine-tuned for life, implying intelligence existed prior to matter.
He also claims that space and time are not objects or things, but rather tools of our animal understanding.
Lanza says that we carry space and time around with us “like turtles with shells.” meaning that when the shell comes off (space and time), we still exist.’
Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku explains the basics of String Theory in this clip from his Floating University lecture. (Video Below)
The article below is a basic overview of String Theory contributed by Dr B.Sathyanarayanan
Basically, Superstring theory is a unified theory of fundamental interactions. It involves super symmetry, in which the basic objects are one dimensional and are known as Super strings. Since the distances between them are very small the energy associated with them is very high. Features of super strings are compatible with the experimental facts of elementary particles. Hence, study of Super strings essentially involves study of four fundamental interactions, forces associated with them and elementary particles which we shall see in this article in a simple manner.
2. The Four Fundamental Interactions:
-1. The Gravitational Interaction.
-2. The Weak Interaction.
-3. The Electromagnetic Interaction
-4. The Strong Interaction.
-1. Gravitational Interaction.
This is the weakest of all the four, which is 10power 40times weaker than electromagnetic interaction. We all know that it is an attractive force between bodies which have mass. This interaction can be visualised as a field of attraction which is proportional to the product of the masses of the interacting bodies but reduces as per square of the distance between them. In other words, Newton's Law of Gravitation states that any two objects in this Universe having masses of m1 and m2, separated by a distance of d are attracted with a force equal to G m1.m2/d2 where G is the Universal Gravitational constant. In Microcosm (atomic scale), the force is negligible giving prominence to other forces whereas in Macrocosm (Cosmological scale), the masses are enormous and the gravitational force is very important and holds the components of the Universe together.
General theory of relativity gives a consistent theory of gravitation, defining the four dimensions of space and time as 'curved' (Please refer to the article on General Theory of Relativity). But as such, Superstring theory will be able to give a consistent quantum theory of Gravitation as well, connecting it with other three fundamental forces. For this, a hypothetical concept of 'Graviton', the Gravitation particle is useful in some contexts.
Graviton: Gravitons are hypothetical particles for exchange of gravitational energies, postulated to make gravitational forces consistent with electromagnetic forces. (Inasmuch Photon is the particle carrying energy in Electromagnetic Energy; Graviton is the particle carrying energy in Gravitational force.) It is expected to have zero mass and travel with speed of light like photons and have a spin of 2. The graviton is the mediator in gravitational interactions functioning like exchange particle.
-2: The Weak Interaction:
The weak interaction occurs between leptons and in the decay of Hadrons. Leptons are elementary particles of very small mass (compared to nucleons) like electrons, muons, tau particles, and neutrinos. (Readers are recommended to go through any simple book on Elementary particles). For any lepton there is an equivalent anti particle. Anti leptons have equivalent anti charges whereas neutrinos do not possess any charge. These three particles differ only in masses Keeping the electron mass as the standard, muon is 200 times massive than electron and tau particle is 3500 times more massive than electron, yet much lighter than the nucleons (Protons and neutron).
Leptons interact with weak interaction and electromagnetic interaction thus making their unification possible.
-3 The electromagnetic interaction:
If a question is put to determine two important discoveries in Physics which have changed Science History, the answer can be easily said as discovery of Gravitation and Electromagnetic spectrum. As pointed out in this article elsewhere, Gravitation deals mainly with bodies in macrocosm whereas electromagnetic spectrum deals with particles in macrocosm. Electromagnetic interaction is responsible for the forces that control atomic structure, chemical reactions and all electromagnetic phenomena. It accounts for the forces between charged particles, but unlike gravitational interaction this force is either attractive or repulsive. It is also true that some neutral particles decay by electromagnetic interaction.
There are two viewpoints in visualizing this interaction.
The first viewpoint is visualizing this as a classical field of force which is characterised by coulomb's law. Coulomb's states that the force between two charged particles with charges q1 and q2 separated by a distance d is q1q2/4pi e d2 where e is the absolute permittivity of the intervening medium.
The second viewpoint is considering this force as virtual exchange of photons carrying an energy E= hf where f is the frequency of oscillation and h is Plank's constant.
They are long ranged interactions and are well defined by Maxwell's equations. The quantum theory of electromagnetic interactions is described by quantum thermodynamics which is a simple form of gauge theory. Photon is the mediator functioning as the energy carrier in this type of interactions.
What is a photon?
Photon is a particle with zero rest mass consisting of a quantum of energy hf. Photons travel with speed of light. It defines light and other electromagnetic radiations as particles.
Radio frequencies with less frequency and long wavelengths, Infrared radiation ( a form of heat radiation), Visible light, Ultra violet radiations, X-rays and Gamma rays with the highest frequency constitute the energy spectrum of Electromagnetic radiation.
-4: Strong Interactions:
Strong interaction is 100 times stronger than electromagnetic radiation and functions between Hadrons, and is responsible for the nuclear stability. Hadrons include protons, neutrons and pions. They are considered to have internal structure known as quarks.
Strong interactions are close ranged reactions since they take place inside the nucleus. Strong interactions are defined by quantum chromo dynamics. Here, the mediators are Gluons which act as the energy carriers.
4. The Super String Theory as the Connecting Link between the Four Fundamental Forces:
The super symmetry among the four fundamental interactions is visualised as a super string or as a one dimensional object. Super strings are supposed to have a length scale of 10 power -35 meter and energy scales about 10 power 19 GeV. Strings associated with Bosons particles which follow Bose-Einstein statistics having integral spin) are consistent in 26 dimensional space-time and with fermions (particles which follow Fermi-Dirac statistics, having half-spin) are consistent in 10 dimensional space -time. Kaluza-Klein theory is the one which unifies gravitation with other four interactions. The higher dimensions are rolled up to become microscopically small through a process called Spontaneous Compactification, finally ending in four macroscopic dimensions which we observe in General Theory of Relativity.
There is no direct evidence for super strings. But some features of super strings are compatible with the experimental facts of elementary particles which do not obey Parity.
5: Thought Force:
Science does not recognise thought force as the fifth force. But as per Holistic Philosophy Thought force is the mightiest of all which governs the entire Universe.
Readers are referred to earlier articles by the author on the topics 'What is life?' and 'What is Intelligence?' They will give an idea about the role Gravitation plays in forming life. In Macroscopic level, Physical life is formed using Gravitational force and the same life is sustained by opposing Gravitation, using other three fundamental forces in microscopic level. The concept of Negative entropy was introduced to highlight the truth behind sustenance of life.
Thought is Intelligence converted to material level and it uses all the forces to its benefit. Thus, study of thought force will help furtherance of fundamental forces.
In this article, a brief account of four fundamental forces is given. Finally, a brief account of Super string theory as the unified theory of all the four forces is given. A philosophical approach using thought force is also given.
The purpose of this article is to highlight the entire realm of Physics. If one has a good knowledge of all the known fundamental forces, he/she is construed to have an idea of entire physics because, Gravitation covers all the objects at Macro level and the weak, strong and the electromagnetic forces cover the entire microscopic and energy fields. Of course, readers are advised to consult prescribed text books and have update knowledge of fundamental forces and the Super string theory. However a reference can be made to this article which will give elementary clarification on any topic or title related to super string theory. The purpose of this article is to create that awareness.
The author wishes the readers all the best.
Dr B.Sathyanarayanan (65) is an experienced administrator, teacher and writer. He is M.Sc(Physics) from Annamalai University. He studied Psychology and Philosophy as two additional subjects for graduation. He worked as a PHYSICS LECTURER for 2 years (1969-1971). Later, he had to take up a bank job and continued Physics and Philosophy research privately. At the age of 50, he got voluntary retirement from banking service to devote more time for social,educational and research activities. In 2005, he took up Physics teaching once again and is continuously teaching for the past 8 years as a regular professor of Physics.
He continued his interest in Psychology and got his PhD in Psychological counselling in 2000 and is counselling on HIV/AIDS matters. He conducted several intervention programmes. He is a well known writer in English in fiction and article writing. His writing is recognised internationally by listing in the directory of World Philosophers, Bowling Green State University, U.S.A.
All along his life so far, he remained a scientific philosopher in thought and deeds. He considers Albert Einstein as his role model in Science and J.Krishnamurti, in Philosophy. His first book 'The Simple Truth", a comparative study of Religion and Science, was published in 1987. He is publishing the annual magazine 'Philosophy of Science' (since re-started). He founded Holistic Philosophy Society for the study of Physics and Philosophy. His latest book 'Glimpses of Holistic Philosophy' has been widely acclaimed. He conducts regular meetings on various topics on Physics and Philosophy in Chennai. He recently conducted a "Two days seminar on Religion, Science and Social Services" in Chennai, India which was attended by senior Professors of Physics and Philosophy. As an experienced author, he is glad to present the above article for the kind attention of readers.
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‘A new paradigm of being is opening up. It is here all around us. But sometimes it’s extremely hard to balance the connection to this ‘new world’ with living day-to-day in society, especially because not everyone is yet reading from this divine ‘script’.
It can sometimes feel like it’s one or the other. Integrating one into the other can seem a nigh on impossibility, but it is not. Here’s where the tactile, empathic nature of the soul – the ‘diplomat’ – comes into it’s own: intuiting and feeling the flow of ‘rightness’ in any given situation, yet molding and blending it into this material world for maximum unraveling and realigning impact. You can live your truth, honour the alternative truth of another, yet not compromise your soul…’
When we were children we were asked, Which came first, the chicken or the egg? If we based our answer on the creation story in the Bible, we would answer, Chicken. But if we based our answer on our experience in raising chickens, our answer would be, Egg.
The same can be said of the answer to the question, Which came first, Religion or Spirituality?
In terms of our experience with religious books and discussions, religion came first. It is only now that more and more people are talking about spirituality and writing about it. In terms of the origin of the reality behind those words or in terms of the object of our understanding, spirituality came first. The spirit was there before there was any religion. God was there before there was anybody to worship him.
We can even say that spirituality is an offshoot of religion. For many centuries people professed religion. Some of them fiercely opposed religions other their own. Christians for many centuries opposed paganism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and any other religion. This has happened also with paganism, Islam, and the rest with respect to the other religions. They too opposed other religions.
But more and more people discover that mere religion cannot answer their deeper yearning for a better experience of life. So, they turned to something deeper and better than religion. They found this in spirituality.
Because spirituality in a sense is an offshoot of religion, there is bound to be some similarity between them, just like the similarity between the egg and the chicken.
First, both believe in a higher power of some kind. Religion believes in God the Father or Jesus, or Allah, or Brahman, or Tao. Spirituality believes also in this God or it may conceive of God as a universal or primal energy. Both believe that such being possesses power higher and greater than what we have.
Secondly, both religion and spirituality desire to have a relationship with this higher power. Although the nature of the relationship is different in religion than in spirituality, the desire for this relationship is there. Religion connects with this higher power with fear and trembling. Spirituality connects with this higher power with love and affection.
Thirdly, both religion and spirituality have rituals and practices which deepen one's religiosity or spirituality. Religion usually has sacred rites or sacraments. Spirituality has meditation or yoga sessions.
Fourthly, both have respect for the sacred, the other worldly. This is not just respect for God. This is respect for the reality that is beyond our senses and reason. When religion pushes this respect to its extreme, it becomes superstition. When spirituality pushes this respect to its extreme, it becomes religious spirituality.
Fifthly, both have fear of failure. In religion this failure is punished by hell fire or repetition of existence or some other worse fate. In spirituality this failure is the inability to realize one's true worth or value and the destiny of a life of meaninglessness. Hell, repetition of existence, non-existence, meaninglessness are forms of punishment for failure, either in religion or in spirituality.
"Does Hell exist? where do evil dictators such as Hitler, Bin Laden and George W. bush go when they die?"
"What do we do about negative physical things we have no control over, things like being beaten up for lovingly standing up for our beliefs, being thrown in jail for something that we did not do, loosing our homes and our jobs through no fault of our own, starvation and natural disasters?"
I am truly glad to have found your channel! You're such a beautiful soul, love and light. One question though, I am interested in Indian religion and spirituality, are there any recommended books I should start looking at?
Nittyanandam Sudevi :) I just recently found your YouTube channel and have been very diligently, and blissfully watching all of your various videos. I love that i can watch something like a Q&A video about questions i might not necessarily care about specifically and , without fail, gain some insight that i didn't know i needed. Thank you for your clear and thorough teachings! I have one question for you at this time, it's a request for clarification on something you said. In several videos you express the importance of never consuming fluoride or aspartame. In another video you describe how we should not fear chemtrails, nano tech or things of that nature, but instead, visualize breathing in pure prana and breathing out everything that does not serve us, and in so doing, to not fear the chemicals in our surroundings. I'm not clear on how these two thoughtforms and practices can harmonize. Hopefully you can, at some point, explain a little about this. Thank you very much for the beauty you put out into the world and the love that you shine for all to enjoy! may it be returned to you in ever increasing abundance!
‘There’s a war going on; a war of which you may not be aware. No, I’m not talking about Iran, or Syria, or North Korea. I’m not even talking about the Illuminati or the New World Order. And I’m not talking about the war on drugs, either. I’m talking about the war between fans of the fathers of electromagnetic theory: Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla. For the record, I come down squarely in the Tesla camp, though if you’re an Edisonite, I’ll happily forgive that lapse in good judgment on the basis that you may not know just how awesome Tesla was.
And since today (February 11) is Thomas Edison’s birthday, I figured it would be a good time to take on a subject that involves the work of his one-time protégé and long-time nemesis.
Nikola Tesla was a genius. He revolutionized EM theory, and according to some, he tapped into fundamental energies and processes that no one else had or has ever considered. His inventions have forever changed the world and have provided the foundation for so much of our modern electronics-based culture.’
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